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      Owing to NASA’s Quesst mission and Commercial Supersonic Technology project, there is growing industry interest in commercial aircraft that fly faster than the speed of sound. In 2020, NASA funded two independent studies to investigate the economic viability of this potential market for high-speed commercial flight. Since then, NASA has funded additional studies to investigate the technology developments needed for these aircraft, as well as the regulatory and certification barriers that currently exist for aircraft that break the sound barrier.
      Although the initial studies found an economically feasible market may exist for aircraft that fly between 2-4 times the speed of sound, additional studies have shown the most profitable market is at the lower end of this speed range. In addition, current restrictions on overland sonic booms, landing and takeoff noise, and engine emissions currently prohibit the operation of high-speed commercial aircraft. NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology and Hypersonic Technology projects are working to overcome the technological and regulatory barriers by partnering with industry and other government agencies. In addition, NASA hosts industry workshops to discuss high-speed commercial flight and to understand this evolving industry.

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    • By NASA
      Phil Korpeck, a magniX test engineer, sets up a magni650 electric engine in preparation for a series of simulated altitude tests. These tests took place in April 2024 inside NASA’s Electric Aircraft Testbed facility. NASA/Sara Lowthian-Hanna At a simulated 27,500 feet inside an altitude chamber at NASA’s Electric Aircraft Testbed (NEAT) facility, engineers at magniX recently demonstrated the capabilities of a battery-powered engine that could help turn hybrid electric flight into a reality.  
      This milestone, completed in April 2024, marks the end of the first phase in a series of altitude tests at the facility under NASA’s Electrified Powertrain Flight Demonstration (EPFD) project.
      EPFD brings together expertise from NASA and various industry partners to test the feasibility of hybrid electric propulsion for future commercial aircraft. 
      NEAT, housed within NASA’s Neil Armstrong Test Facility in Sandusky, Ohio, offers a unique testing environment that simulates the effects of high altitudes without leaving the ground.
      This capability allows researchers to safely evaluate the performance of electrified aircraft propulsion systems and components under realistic flight conditions. 
      “The testing at NEAT is critical for high-power electrified aircraft propulsion technologies because many of the potential problems that a design might encounter only present themselves at higher altitudes,” said Brad French, lead systems engineer for NASA EPFD. “We do our best to analyze machines through sea-level testing, but nothing compares to actually putting them in the environments they will experience on wing and directly observing how they behave.”  
      Progress on the Ground 
      At higher altitudes, electrified aircraft propulsion systems will be exposed to thinner air and greater temperature shifts that could negatively impact performance.
      The initial round of tests focused on investigating the effects of temperature and high voltage on the electric engine when operating at flight levels. 
      Researchers conducted partial discharge tests, which examine the strength of the system’s electrical insulation, to help minimize risks of failure that might occur due to excess stress on the components.
      They also investigated the engine’s thermal management system to better understand how heat is safely and effectively transferred throughout the machine.  
      At a control room in NASA’s Electric Aircraft Testbed facility, NASA electrical lead Mark Worley, right, technical lead Nuha Nawash, and software engineer Joseph Staudt, left, monitor altitude testing telemetry via video monitors in April 2024. NASA/Jef Janis “The development of new technologies is a methodical and incremental process,” French said. “By testing these systems in a controlled environment, we can verify that they operate safely and as expected, or isolate and solve any problems before they pose a significant risk.” 
      Gearing Up for Hybrid Electric Flight Tests 
      Under EPFD, magniX is retrofitting a De Havilland Dash 7 aircraft with a new hybrid electric propulsion system that combines traditional turbo-propellor engines with electric motors.
      This vehicle will be used to demonstrate fuel burn and emission reductions in regional aircraft carrying up to 50 passengers, helping advance NASA’s mission to make air travel more sustainable. 
      The company recently completed baseline flight testing of the Dash 7 in Moses Lake, Washington, surveying the state of the aircraft prior to modification.
      Data gathered from these flight tests will help the team compare fuel savings and performance boosts with the new electrified system.
      With baseline flight tests complete, magniX will begin modifying the aircraft in preparation for hybrid electric flight tests planned for 2026.  
      Baseline flight testing of magniX’s De Havilland Dash 7 aircraft in Moses Lake, Washington during April 2024 prior to hybrid electric system modifications. magniX In the meantime, the next phase of ground tests at NEAT is slated for the summer of 2024 and will evaluate these systems under more extreme flight conditions, including higher power levels and temperatures.
      Each round of testing will provide more insight that will eventually help identify new standards and regulations required for future electrified aircraft.  
      In addition to magniX, NASA works with GE Aerospace to explore other design configurations and approaches for hybridizing commercial aircraft. GE also completed altitude tests of their hybrid electric propulsion system at NEAT in 2022. 
      NASA, with GE and magniX, are accelerating the development and introduction of electrified aircraft propulsion technologies through NEAT while gathering a rich archive of scientific data.
      This will help inform advanced electrified aircraft propulsion system concepts and formulate new research areas and technologies to enable a sustainable aviation future. 
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      Artist illustration of the satellite Intelsat 40e. NASA's TEMPO instrument launched into geostationary orbit 22,236 miles above Earth's equator in April 2023 as a payload on the satellite. Credits: Maxar Technologies NASA has made new data available that can provide air pollution observations at unprecedented resolutions – down to the scale of individual neighborhoods. The near real-time data comes from the agency’s TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument, which launched last year to improve life on Earth by revolutionizing the way scientists observe air quality from space. This new data is available from the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.
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      To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video
      The TEMPO instrument measured elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from a number of different areas and emission sources throughout the daytime on March 28, 2024. Yellow, red, purple, and black clusters represent increased levels of pollutants from TEMPO’s data and show drift over time. Credit: Trent Schindler/NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio The TEMPO mission gathers hourly daytime scans of the atmosphere over North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Coast, and from Mexico City to central Canada. The instrument detects pollution by observing how sunlight is absorbed and scattered by gases and particles in the troposphere, the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere.
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      NO2 levels are elevated along major traffic corridors including I-35 in Texas with the highest levels between 9:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m. Elevated NO2 levels are shown across cities including Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio, with the highest levels persisting across Houston from morning to evening. Credit: Trent Schindler/NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio An early adopter program has allowed policymakers and other air quality stakeholders to understand the capabilities and benefits of TEMPO’s measurements. Since October 2023, the TEMPO calibration and validation team has been working to evaluate and improve TEMPO data products. 
      We have more than 500 early adopters that will be using these datasets right away.
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      “Data gathered by TEMPO will play an important role in the scientific analysis of pollution,” said Xiong Liu, senior physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and principal investigator for the mission. “For example, we will be able to conduct studies of rush hour pollution, linkages of diseases and health issues to acute exposure of air pollution, how air pollution disproportionately impacts underserved communities, the potential for improved air quality alerts, the effects of lightning on ozone, and the movement of pollution from forest fires and volcanoes.” 
      Measurements by TEMPO include air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and ground-level ozone.
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      High NO2 levels associated with prescribed burns are seen popping up across East Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, beginning around 1:00 p.m. and extending into the evening. Elevated NO2 levels are visible in cities from El Paso to Memphis.Credit: Trent Schindler/NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio “Poor air quality exacerbates pre-existing health issues, which leads to more hospitalizations,” said Jesse Bell, executive director at the University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Water, Climate, and Health Program. Bell is an early adopter of TEMPO’s data.
      Bell noted that there is a lack of air quality data in rural areas since monitoring stations are often hundreds of miles apart. There is also an observable disparity in air quality from neighborhood to neighborhood.
      “Low-income communities, on average, have poorer air quality than more affluent communities,” said Bell. “For example, we’ve conducted studies and found that in Douglas County, which surrounds Omaha, the eastern side of the county has higher rates of pediatric asthma hospitalizations. When we identify what populations are going to the hospital at a higher rate than others, it’s communities of color and people with indicators of poverty. Data gathered by TEMPO is going to be incredibly important because you can get better spatial and temporal resolution of air quality across places like Douglas County.”
      Determining sources of air pollution can be difficult as smoke from wildfires or pollutants from industry and traffic congestion drift on winds. The TEMPO instrument will make it easier to trace the origin of some pollutants.
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      TEMPO observes the northerly transport of NO2 from the Permian basin, a large oil and natural gas producing area spanning parts of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico, with the highest levels measured during the morning over the basin. NO2 plumes from coal-fired power plants are visible in the rural areas far west and northwest of Houston and far east of Dallas between 8:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.Credit: Trent Schindler/NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio “The National Park Service is using TEMPO data to gain new insight into emerging air quality issues at parks in southeast New Mexico,” explained National Park Service chemist, Barkley Sive. “Oil and gas emissions from the Permian Basin have affected air quality at Carlsbad Caverns and other parks and their surrounding communities. While pollution control strategies have successfully decreased ozone levels across most of the United States, the data helps us understand degrading air quality in the region.” 
      The TEMPO instrument was built by BAE Systems, Inc., Space & Mission Systems (formerly Ball Aerospace) and flies aboard the Intelsat 40e satellite built by Maxar Technologies. The TEMPO Ground System, including the Instrument Operations Center and the Science Data Processing Center, are operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Organization, part of the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian.
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    • By USH
      UFO historian Michael Schratt joins Richard during the second half of this special episode, which was sparked by a powerful statement from Christopher Mellon on April 22. 
      On his substack page, Mellon shared a redacted and annotated screenshot of an exchange he had on Signal with a senior government official from around 2020. This official discussed access to a U.S. alien technology recovery and exploitation program. 

      The official also mentioned that progress was being made in accessing a classified program related to a UAP that landed in Kingman, Arizona, in the 1950s. In addition, he referred to the program's management, security controls, and the recovery process for landed or crashed UAPs. 
      Finally, he mentioned a classified memo from the 1950s by a Secretary of the USAF as as still being in effect to maintain secrecy this matter. All of this is new information. Most importantly, it is supported by longstanding UFO research into the matter, an abundance of which is provided by Michael Schratt. 
      We are talking about the 1953 UFO Kingman incident. 
      The UFO flew through an experimental high powered radar range, and was forced to land South of Kingman. This craft was in perfect condition. 
      A group of 40 people (15 specialists and 25 scientists) boarded a General Motors Model 3301 bus (with blackout windows) in Phoenix, and made a four hour trip to the site where the craft had come down. 

      After arriving at the site the bus parked approximately 50 feet from the object, the team members were told that they were here to examine a secret Air Force vehicle that had come down. 
      Not one but three UFOs came down at the same time. 
      Over the course of a decade-long investigation, Historian and researcher Harry Drew meticulously sifting through archival materials, newspapers, and records, came to the conclusion that actually three unidentified crafts crashed near Kingman. 
      One craft met its demise upon crashing into the mountainside near Kingman, igniting a fierce blaze. Another was discovered fully intact amidst the desert terrain, while the third craft endured a turbulent landing, scraping against rocky terrain before coming to rest near a small reservoir. 
      Military personnel swiftly secured the crash sites, guarding them until a specialized recovery team could transport the unidentified crafts to a Nevada base. 

      Drew asserts that his research not only illuminates the details of the crashes themselves but also unveils the covert operations involved in transporting the crafts to Nevada. The preservation of one of the machines, largely intact, offering a tantalizing glimpse into alien technology.
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    • By USH
      As we delve into the mysteries surrounding unidentified flying objects (UFOs), Dr. Steven Greer sheds light on the concealed truths that lie within the shadows of secrecy. Back in October 1954, a groundbreaking discovery took place, unbeknownst to the public eye. Despite skepticism from contemporary engineers, classified documents revealed humanity's mastery of gravity control, a feat achieved through a deeply classified project. 

      Imagine, in 1954, humanity had already unlocked the secrets of gravity—a revelation still deemed far-fetched by modern science. Yet, this monumental achievement was shrouded in secrecy. Why did we opt for conventional highways over futuristic skyways after attaining such groundbreaking technology? What does this say about the hidden agendas of our governments and the potential evolution of our world? 
      The secrecy surrounding UFO technology stems from its revolutionary nature. These objects defy conventional propulsion systems; they operate without jets, rockets, or nuclear power plants, emitting no discernible heat signature. Instead, they harness a new physics—electromagnetic propulsion, reminiscent of Nikola Tesla's discoveries in the early 20th century. 
      Revealing such advanced technologies would disrupt established economic systems, rendering traditional energy sources obsolete and transforming our world into one powered by clean, free energy from the Zero Point Energy field. While this prospect promises an end to pollution and poverty within two decades, it threatens the status quo upheld by vested interests worth trillions of dollars. 
      Furthermore, the narrative surrounding UFOs has been manipulated to instill fear in the public, paving the way for centralized control under the guise of protecting against a common extraterrestrial threat. However, Dr. Greer exposes these fabrications, highlighting the psychological toll of harboring monumental secrets and questioning the true motivations behind keeping transformative technologies under wraps. 
      Contrary to popular belief, advanced extraterrestrial civilizations have shown concern for humanity's well-being, as evidenced by their intervention to prevent nuclear catastrophe. Rather than hostile intentions, their actions suggest a desire for peaceful coexistence within a broader cosmic community. 
      Dr. Greer's efforts to disclose the truth to the highest levels of government mark a pivotal moment in human history. Yet, skepticism and controversy surround this journey towards disclosure. As we on the brink of major revelations, it becomes imperative to navigate the balance between skepticism and undeniable evidence, preparing ourselves for the potential revelation of extraterrestrial life and technology.
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