Jump to content

The Universe in a box: preparing for Euclid’s survey

Recommended Posts

The_Universe_in_a_box_preparing_for_Eucl Video: 00:03:31

ESA’s Euclid mission will create a 3D-map of the Universe that scientists will use to measure the properties of dark energy and dark matter and uncover the nature of these mysterious components. The map will contain a vast amount of data, it will cover more than a third of the sky and its third dimension will represent time spanning 10 billion years of cosmic history.  

But dealing with the huge and detailed set of novel data that Euclid observations will produce is not an easy task. To prepare for this, scientists in the Euclid Consortium have developed one of the most accurate and comprehensive computer simulations of the large-scale structure of the Universe ever produced. They named this the Euclid Flagship simulation. 

Running on large banks of advanced processors, computer simulations provide a unique laboratory to model the formation and evolution of large-scale structures in the Universe, such as galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the filamentary cosmic web they form. These state-of-the-art computational techniques allow astrophysicists to trace the motion and behavior of an extremely large number of dark-matter particles over cosmological volumes under the influence of their own gravitational pull. They replicate how and where galaxies form and grow, and are used to predict their distribution across the celestial sphere. 

Explore the Euclid Flagship simulation in this video and get a sneak preview of the structure of the dark Universe, as we currently model it. New insights will be brought to you by the Euclid mission in the coming years. 

View the full article

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Similar Topics

    • By SpaceX
      Starship | Preparing for Second Flight Test
    • By NASA
      NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope have united to study an expansive galaxy cluster known as MACS0416. The resulting panchromatic image combines visible and infrared light to assemble one of the most comprehensive views of the universe ever taken. Located about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth, MACS0416 is a pair of colliding galaxy clusters that will eventually combine to form an even bigger cluster.
      Image: Galaxy Cluster MACS0416
      This panchromatic view of galaxy cluster MACS0416 was created by combining infrared observations from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope with visible-light data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. The resulting wavelength coverage, from 0.4 to 5 microns, reveals a vivid landscape of galaxies whose colors give clues to galaxy distances: The bluest galaxies are relatively nearby and often show intense star formation, as best detected by Hubble, while the redder galaxies tend to be more distant, or else contain copious amount of dust, as detected by Webb. The image reveals a wealth of details that are only possible to capture by combining the power of both space telescopes. In this image, blue represents data at wavelengths of 0.435 and 0.606 microns (Hubble filters F435W and F606W); cyan is 0.814, 0.9, and 1.05 microns (Hubble filters F814W, and F105W and Webb filter F090W); green is 1.15, 1.25, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6 microns (Hubble filters F125W, F140W, and F160W, and Webb filters F115W and F150W); yellow is 2.00 and 2.77 microns (Webb filters F200W, and F277W); orange is 3.56 microns (Webb filter F356W); and red represents data at 4.1 and 4.44 microns (Webb filters F410M and F444W). NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, J. Diego (Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Spain), J. D’Silva (U. Western Australia), A. Koekemoer (STScI), J. Summers & R. Windhorst (ASU), and H. Yan (U. Missouri). The image reveals a wealth of details that are only possible to capture by combining the power of both space telescopes. It includes a bounty of galaxies outside the cluster and a sprinkling of sources that vary over time, likely due to gravitational lensing – the distortion and amplification of light from distant background sources.
      This cluster was the first of a set of unprecedented, super-deep views of the universe from an ambitious, collaborative Hubble program called the Frontier Fields, inaugurated in 2014. Hubble pioneered the search for some of the intrinsically faintest and youngest galaxies ever detected. Webb’s infrared view significantly bolsters this deep look by going even farther into the early universe with its infrared vision.
      “We are building on Hubble’s legacy by pushing to greater distances and fainter objects,” said Rogier Windhorst of Arizona State University, principal investigator of the PEARLS program (Prime Extragalactic Areas for Reionization and Lensing Science), which took the Webb observations.
      What the Colors Mean
      To make the image, in general the shortest wavelengths of light were color-coded blue, the longest wavelengths red, and intermediate wavelengths green. The broad range of wavelengths, from 0.4 to 5 microns, yields a particularly vivid landscape of galaxies.
      Those colors give clues to galaxy distances: The bluest galaxies are relatively nearby and often show intense star formation, as best detected by Hubble, while the redder galaxies tend to be more distant as detected by Webb. Some galaxies also appear very red because they contain copious amounts of cosmic dust that tends to absorb bluer colors of starlight.
      “The whole picture doesn’t become clear until you combine Webb data with Hubble data,” said Windhorst.
      Image: Side-by-side Hubble/Webb
      This side-by-side comparison of galaxy cluster MACS0416 as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope in optical light (left) and the James Webb Space Telescope in infrared light (right) reveals different details. Both images feature hundreds of galaxies, however the Webb image shows galaxies that are invisible or only barely visible in the Hubble image. This is because Webb’s infrared vision can detect galaxies too distant or dusty for Hubble to see. (Light from distant galaxies is redshifted due to the expansion of the universe.) The total exposure time for Webb was about 22 hours, compared to 122 hours of exposure time for the Hubble image.NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI Christmas Tree Galaxy Cluster
      While the new Webb observations contribute to this aesthetic view, they were taken for a specific scientific purpose. The research team combined their three epochs of observations, each taken weeks apart, with a fourth epoch from the CANUCS (CAnadian NIRISS Unbiased Cluster Survey) research team. The goal was to search for objects varying in observed brightness over time, known as transients.
      They identified 14 such transients across the field of view. Twelve of those transients were located in three galaxies that are highly magnified by gravitational lensing, and are likely to be individual stars or multiple-star systems that are briefly very highly magnified. The remaining two transients are within more moderately magnified background galaxies and are likely to be supernovae.
      “We’re calling MACS0416 the Christmas Tree Galaxy Cluster, both because it’s so colorful and because of these flickering lights we find within it. We can see transients everywhere,” said Haojing Yan of the University of Missouri in Columbia, lead author of one paper describing the scientific results.
      Finding so many transients with observations spanning a relatively short time frame suggests that astronomers could find many additional transients in this cluster and others like it through regular monitoring with Webb.
      A Kaiju Star
      Among the transients the team identified, one stood out in particular. Located in a galaxy that existed about 3 billion years after the big bang, it is magnified by a factor of at least 4,000. The team nicknamed the star system “Mothra” in a nod to its “monster nature,” being both extremely bright and extremely magnified. It joins another lensed star the researchers previously identified that they nicknamed “Godzilla.” (Both Godzilla and Mothra are giant monsters known as kaiju in Japanese cinema.)
      Interestingly, Mothra is also visible in the Hubble observations that were taken nine years previously. This is unusual, because a very specific alignment between the foreground galaxy cluster and the background star is needed to magnify a star so greatly. The mutual motions of the star and the cluster should have eventually eliminated that alignment.
      Image: Gravitationally Lensed Galaxy
      This image of galaxy cluster MACS0416 highlights one particular gravitationally lensed background galaxy, which existed about 3 billion years after the big bang. That galaxy contains a transient, or object that varies in observed brightness over time, that the science team nicknamed “Mothra.” Mothra is a star that is magnified by a factor of at least 4,000 times. The team believes that Mothra is magnified not only by the gravity of galaxy cluster MACS0416, but also by an object known as a “milli-lens” that likely weighs about as much as a globular star cluster.NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, J. Diego (Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Spain), J. D’Silva (U. Western Australia), A. Koekemoer (STScI), J. Summers & R. Windhorst (ASU), and H. Yan (U. Missouri). The most likely explanation is that there is an additional object within the foreground cluster that is adding more magnification. The team was able to constrain its mass to be between 10,000 and 1 million times the mass of our Sun. The exact nature of this so-called “milli-lens,” however, remains unknown.
      “The most likely explanation is a globular star cluster that’s too faint for Webb to see directly,” stated Jose Diego of the Instituto de Física de Cantabria in Spain, lead author of the paper detailing the finding. “But we don’t know the true nature of this additional lens yet.”
      The Yan et al. paper is accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. The Diego et al. paper has been published in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
      The Webb data shown here was obtained as part of PEARLS GTO program 1176.
      The James Webb Space Telescope is the world’s premier space science observatory. Webb is solving mysteries in our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.
      The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble and Webb science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, in Washington, D.C.
      Media Contacts

      Laura Betz – laura.e.betz@nasa.gov, Claire Andreoli – claire.andreoli@nasa.gov
      NASA’s  Goddard Space Flight Center, , Greenbelt, Md.

      Hannah Braun – hbraun@stsci.edu , Christine Pulliam – cpulliam@stsci.edi
      Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.

      Download full resolution images for this article from the Space Telescope Science Institute.
      Research Results: the Yan et al. paper is accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.
      Research Results: the Diego et al. paper has been published in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

      Related Information
      Galaxies Basics – https://universe.nasa.gov/galaxies/basics/
      Galaxies Evolution – https://universe.nasa.gov/galaxies/evolution/

      Webb Mission Page – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/
      Webb News – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/latestnews/
      Webb Images – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/multimedia/images/
      Hubble Mission Page – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/hubble
      Hubble News – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/hubble/hubble-news/
      Hubble Images – https://science.nasa.gov/mission/hubble/multimedia/hubble-images/

      En Español
      Ciencia de la NASA
      NASA en español 
      Space Place para niños
      Keep Exploring Related Topics
      James Webb Space Telescope
      Webb is the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It studies every phase in the…
      Hubble Space Telescope
      This placeholder has been created to be used in the Topic Cards block. PLEASE DO NOT DELETE IT. This post’s…
      Overview Galaxies consist of stars, planets, and vast clouds of gas and dust, all bound together by gravity. The largest…
      Explore the universe: Learn about the history of the cosmos, what it’s made of, and so much more.
      Last Updated Nov 09, 2023 Editor Steve Sabia Contact Related Terms
      Galaxies Galaxies, Stars, & Black Holes Goddard Space Flight Center Hubble Space Telescope James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) The Universe View the full article
    • By NASA
      2 min read
      NASA’s Curious Universe Podcast Unveils New Season of Adventures
      NASA’s short-form, narrative podcast, NASA’s Curious Universe, returns for its sixth season Nov. 7. This season will bring listeners on new “wild and wonderful” adventures from the farthest reaches of the cosmos to right here on planet Earth. 
      NASA In season six, listeners will meet researchers who are using sounds from the Sun to learn crucial details about our star, explore the “dark side” of the universe with scientists who study dark matter and dark energy, and get a behind-the-scenes look at the first NASA mission to deliver an asteroid sample to Earth. 
      Listen to the first episode "Welcome to the Dark Side" The trailer for season six of NASA’s Curious Universe launched Oct. 31, and new episodes will be published every Tuesday morning through Dec. 19. 
      In each episode, host Dr. Padi Boyd, a NASA astrophysicist, brings listeners on a unique, sound-rich journey through our solar system and beyond. She is joined by a lineup of expert interviewees such as scientists, astronauts, and engineers. 
      NASA’s Curious Universe first debuted in March 2020 and features a catalog of episodes focused on a wide variety topics, from spacesuit design to exoplanet hunting. 
      In 2022, the show received a People’s Voice Webby Award in the category “Best Limited Series—Health, Science & Education,” recognizing the team’s in-depth reporting on the science, engineering, people, and launch of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope.  
      NASA’s Curious Universe is a podcast created with the  “first-time space explorer” in mind and doesn’t require prior knowledge of NASA or its missions. All you need is your curiosity! 
      NASA’s Curious Universe, and the show’s companion Spanish podcast, Universo Curioso de la NASA, are now available on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, and Soundcloud.
      Curious Universe is written and produced by NASA’s audio team, based at the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
      About NASA Audio 
      From long-form interviews with astronauts and engineers to stories that take you on a tour of the galaxy, NASA’s audio offerings let you experience the thrill of space exploration without ever leaving Earth. Discover all of NASA’s podcasts at: nasa.gov/podcasts 
      Media Contact 
      Katie Konans 
      NASA Audio and Podcasting Lead
      NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
      Last Updated Nov 07, 2023 Editor Jamie Adkins Location NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Related Terms
      Audio Goddard Space Flight Center Podcasts Explore More
      3 min read Hubble Tangos with a Dancer in Dorado
      This vibrant Hubble Space Telescope image features the spiral galaxy NGC 1566, sometimes informally referred…
      Article 4 days ago 3 min read NASA Goddard’s ‘Spiky’ Antenna Chamber: Signaling Success for 50 Years
      Rows upon rows of cobalt-blue spires in Goddard’s antenna chamber evoke a soundproof room from…
      Article 5 days ago 3 min read Hubble Provides Unique Ultraviolet View of Jupiter
      This newly released image from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the planet Jupiter in…
      Article 5 days ago View the full article
    • By European Space Agency
      Video: 00:02:59 Never before has a telescope been able to create such razor-sharp astronomical images across such a large patch of the sky.
      On Tuesday 7 November, ESA will release the first full-colour images captured by its recently launched Euclid space telescope. These images form part of the mission’s ‘Early Release Observations’ – where Euclid was tasked with scrutinising a set of celestial targets chosen for their public appeal and scientific value.
      The five images are full of cosmic secrets waiting to be revealed. And this is just the beginning. During its six-year mission, Euclid will generate the equivalent of a million DVDs of data. These data will be used to create the biggest ever 3D map of the Universe and uncover the secrets of dark matter and dark energy.
      In this video, hear from the experts about how Euclid has reached this milestone. Discover how they felt when they saw the first images, and find out what these images will reveal about the cosmos.
      Watch the reveal of the images live through ESA Web TV or YouTube on 7 November, 13:15 GMT / 14:15 CET. At the same time, an ESA press release including all images will be published at esa.int/euclid.
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      NASA / Aubrey Gemignani A SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket with the Psyche spacecraft onboard is seen as it is rolled out of the horizontal integration facility on Oct. 10, 2023, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida as preparations continue for the Psyche mission. NASA’s Psyche spacecraft will travel to a metal-rich asteroid by the same name orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter to study its composition. The spacecraft also carries the agency’s Deep Space Optical Communications technology demonstration, which will test laser communications beyond the Moon.
      If all goes as planned, asteroid Psyche’s gravity will capture the spacecraft in late July 2029, and Psyche will begin its prime mission in August. It will spend about two years orbiting the asteroid to take pictures, map the surface, and collect data to determine Psyche’s composition.
      NASA and SpaceX are targeting Friday, Oct. 13, 2023, at 10:19 a.m. EDT for launch from Kennedy Space Center. Watch the launch on NASA TV.
      Image Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani
      View the full article
  • Check out these Videos

  • Create New...