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    • By NASA
      The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) launched together from Cape Canaveral Air Force, now Space Force, Station on June 18, 2009, atop an Atlas V launch vehicle. The primary mission of the LRO, managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, involved imaging the entire Moon’s surface to create a 3-D map with ~50-centimeter resolution to aid in the planning of future robotic and crewed missions. In addition, LRO would map the polar regions and search for the presence of water ice. Although its primary mission intended to last only one year, it continues to operate after 15 years in lunar orbit. The LCROSS, managed by NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley, planned to further investigate the presence of water ice in permanently shaded areas of the Moon’s polar regions. The two components of LCROSS, the Centaur upper stage of the launch vehicle and the Shepherding Satellite, planned to deliberately crash into the Moon. Instruments on Earth and aboard LRO and the LCROSS Shepherding Satellite would observe the resulting plumes and analyze them for the presence of water.

      Left: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), top, silver, and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), bottom, gold, spacecraft during placement inside the launch shroud. Right: Launch of LRO and LCROSS on an Atlas V rocket.
      The LRO spacecraft carries seven scientific instruments:
      the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) to characterize the lunar radiation environment; the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) to identify areas cold enough to trap ice; the Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LMAP) to search for ice in the lunar polar regions; the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) to create a map of hydrogen distribution and to determine the neutron component of the lunar radiation environment; the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) to measure slopes and roughness of potential landing sites; the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consisting of two-narrow angle and one wide-angle camera to take high-resolution images of the lunar surface; and the Mini Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) experiment, an advanced radar system to image the polar regions and search for water ice.
      Left: Illustration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and its scientific instruments. Right: Illustration of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and its scientific instruments on panel at left.
      The LCROSS Shepherding Satellite carried nine instruments – five cameras (one visible, two near-infrared, and two mid-infrared); three spectrometers (one visible and two near-infrared); and a photometer. They monitored the plume sent up by the impact of the Centaur upper stage.

      Left: Illustration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in lunar orbit. Right: Illustration of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite’s Shepherding Satellite at left and Centaur upper stage at right prior to lunar impact.
      On June 23, 2009, after a four-and-a-half-day journey from Earth, LRO entered an elliptical polar orbit around the Moon. Over the next four days, four engine burns refined the spacecraft’s orbit and engineers on the ground began commissioning its instruments. The LROC returned its first image of the Moon on June 30 of an area near the Mare Nubium. On Sept. 15, 2009, LRO began its primary one-year mission to map the lunar surface from its science orbit 31 miles above the Moon.  
      On Oct. 9, 2009, first the Centaur upper stage followed five minutes later by the LCROSS Shepherding Satellite crashed into the Moon’s Cabeus Crater near the lunar south pole. Although the impacts created smaller plumes than anticipated, instruments detected signs of water in the ejected debris.
      In September 2010, LRO completed its primary mapping mission and began an extended science mission around the Moon. On Dec. 17, NASA released the most detailed topographic map covering more than 98 percent of the Moon’s surface based on data from LRO’s LOLA instrument. The map continues to be updated as new data are received from the spacecraft. On March 15, 2011, LRO had made available more than 192 terabytes of data from its primary mission to the NASA Planetary Data System, or PDS, to make the information available to researchers, students, media, and the general public. LRO  continues to deliver data to the PDS, having generated the largest volume of data from a NASA planetary science mission ever.

      Left: First high-resolution image of the Moon taken by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Middle: Mosaic of LRO images of the Moon’s near side. Right: Mosaic of LRO images of the Moon’s far side.

      Left: Mosaic of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) images of the lunar north pole. Right: Mosaic of LRO images of the lunar south pole.
      The LCROSS data showed that the lunar soil within shadowy craters is rich in useful materials, such as hydrogen gas, ammonia, and methane, which could be used to produce fuel for space missions. Large amounts of light metals, such as sodium, mercury, and silver, were discovered. The data revealed that there is perhaps as much as hundreds of millions of tons of frozen water on the Moon, enough to make it an effective oasis for future explorers.
      Thanks to its unique vantage point in a low altitude lunar orbit, LRO’s camera has taken remarkably detailed images of all six Apollo landing sites. The detail is such that not only can the Lunar Module (LM) descent stages be clearly identified, but disturbances of the lunar soil by the astronauts’ boots, the shadows of the American flag are visible at five of the landing sites, and the Lunar Rovers from the last three missions are even visible. The scientific instruments, and in at least three of the landing sites, the U.S. flag left by the astronauts can be discerned. The flag at the Apollo 11 site cannot be seen because it most likely was blown over by the exhaust of the LM’s ascent stage engine when the astronauts lifted off. In addition to the Apollo landing sites, LRO has also imaged crash and soft-landing sites of other American, Soviet, Chinese, Indian, and Israeli spacecraft, including craters left by the deliberate impacts of Apollo S-IVB upper stages. It also imaged a Korean satellite in lunar orbit as the two flew within a few miles of each other at high speed. LRO also turned its camera Earthward to catch stunning Earthrise views, one image with Mars in the background, and the Moon’s shadow on the Earth during the total solar eclipse on April 8, 2024.

      Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images of the Apollo 11, left, 12, and 14 landing sites.

      Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images of the Apollo 15, left, 16, and 17 landing sites.

      Left: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) image of Luna 17 that landed on the Moon on Nov. 17, 1970, and the tracks of the Lunokhod 1 rover that it deployed. Middle: LRO image of the Chang’e 4 lander and Yutu 2 rover that landed on the Moon’s far side on Jan. 3, 2019. Right: LRO image of the Chandrayaan 3 lander taken four days after it landed on the Moon on Aug. 23, 2023.

      Left: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) image of Odysseus that landed on the Moon on Feb. 22, 2024. Middle: LRO image taken on March 5, 2024, of the Danuri lunar orbiting satellite as the two passed within 3 miles of each other at a relative velocity of 7,200 miles per hour. Right: LRO image of the Chang’e 6 lander on the Moon’s farside, taken on June 7, 2024.

      Left: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) image of Earthrise over Compton Crater taken Oct. 12, 2015. Middle: LRO image of Earth and Mars taken Oct. 2, 2014. Right: LRO image of the total solar eclipse taken on April 8, 2024.
      The LRO mission continues with the spacecraft returning images and data from its instruments. LRO has enough fuel on board to operate until 2027. The spacecraft can support new robotic lunar activities and the knowledge from the mission will help aid in the return of humans to the lunar surface. 
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      Boeing’s Starliner spacecraft docked to the Harmony module of the International Space Station on the company’s Orbital Flight Test-2 mission (Credits: NASA) NASA and Boeing will discuss Starliner’s mission and departure from the International Space Station as part of the agency’s Boeing Crew Flight Test in a pre-departure media teleconference at 12 p.m. EDT Tuesday, June 18.
      NASA, Boeing, and station management teams will evaluate mission requirements and weather conditions at available landing locations in the southwestern U.S. before committing to the spacecraft’s departure from the orbiting laboratory.
      Participants in the news conference include:
      Steve Stich, manager, NASA’s Commercial Crew Program Dana Weigel, manager, NASA’s International Space Station Program Mike Lammers, flight director, NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston Mark Nappi, vice president and program manager, Commercial Crew Program, Boeing Media interested in participating must contact the NASA Johnson newsroom no later than 10 a.m., June 18, at 281-483-5111 or jsccommu@mail.nasa.gov. To ask questions, media must dial into the teleconference no later than 15 minutes before the start of the event.
      Audio of the teleconference will stream live on NASA’s website at:
      https://nasa.gov/nasatv
      As part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, NASA astronauts Butch Wilmore and Suni Williams lifted off at 10:52 a.m., June 5, on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida on an end-to-end test of the Starliner system. The crew docked to the forward-facing port of the station’s Harmony module at 1:34 p.m., June 6.
      For NASA’s blog and more information about the mission, visit:
      https://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew
      -end-
      Josh Finch / Jimi Russell / Claire O’Shea
      Headquarters, Washington
      202-358-1100
      joshua.a.finch@nasa.gov / james.j.russell@nasa.gov / claire.a.o’shea@nasa.gov
      Courtney Beasley / Leah Cheshier
      Johnson Space Center, Houston
      281-483-5111
      courtney.m.beasley@nasa.gov / leah.d.cheshier@nasa.gov
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      2 min read
      Preparations for Next Moonwalk Simulations Underway (and Underwater)
      This summer between June 17 and July 2, NASA will fly aircraft over Baltimore, Philadelphia, parts of Virginia, and California to collect data on air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions.  
      The campaign supports the NASA Student Airborne Research Program for undergraduate interns.
      Two NASA aircraft, including the P-3 shown here, will be flying over Baltimore, Philadelphia, Virginia and California between June 17 and July 2, to collect data on air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. Credit: (NASA/ Zavaleta) The East Coast flights will take place from June 17-26. Researchers and students will fly multiple times each week in Dynamic Aviation’s King Air B200 aircraft at an altitude of 1,000 feet over Baltimore and Philadelphia as well as Norfolk, Hampton, Hopewell, and Richmond in Virginia. Meanwhile, a NASA P-3 aircraft based out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia will fly over the same East Coast locations to collect different measurements.
      The West Coast flights will occur from June 29 – July 2. During the period, those same aircraft will conduct similar operations over Los Angeles, Imperial Valley, and Tulare Basin in California.
      The research aircraft will fly at lower altitudes than most commercial planes and will conduct maneuvers including vertical spirals from 1,000 to 10,000 feet, circling over power plants, landfills, and urban areas. They will also occasionally conduct “missed approaches” at local airports, where the aircraft will perform a low-level flyby over a runway to collect samples close to the surface.
      The aircraft carry instruments that will collect data on a range of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide and methane, as well as air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and ozone. One purpose of this campaign is to validate space-based measurements observed by the TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) mission. Launched on a commercial satellite in April 2023, the TEMPO instrument provides hourly daytime measurements of air pollutants across the United States, northern Mexico, and southern Canada.
      “The goal is that this data we collect will feed into policy decisions that affect air quality and climate in the region,” said Glenn Wolfe, a research scientist and the principal investigator for the campaign at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
      The B-200 aircraft is owned by Dynamics Aviation, an aircraft company contracted by NASA.
      For more information about Student Airborne Research Program, visit:
      https://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/early-career-opportunities/student-airborne-research-program/
      By Tayler Gilmore
      NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
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      Last Updated Jun 14, 2024 EditorJennifer R. MarderContactJeremy EggersLocationGoddard Space Flight Center Related Terms
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    • By European Space Agency
      ESA’s Hera asteroid mission and its two CubeSats interacted as if they were in space, within the foam pyramid-lined walls of the Agency’s Maxwell test chamber in the Netherlands. The trio communicated together, sharing data and ranging information at the same time as their Hera mothership received commands from its mission controllers at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany.
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      5 min read
      Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Visits Partners in Spain, United Kingdom, Greece, and France
      A few weeks ago, I had the distinct pleasure of engaging with several of our strategic partners and friends across Europe. It was a full European tour: two weeks in Spain, the United Kingdom, Greece and France. Throughout the trip, I had many opportunities to discuss our exciting upcoming missions and the incredible impact NASA Science has on the world. 
      In Madrid, I met with the U.S. Ambassador to Spain to discuss how scientific discovery is a global endeavor and how the Science Mission Directorate empowers the scientific community worldwide. I also met with the Director of the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex to thank the team for their exceptional efforts in providing the vital communication link between Earth and our deep space explorers. The team is critical in supporting our NASA Science missions like Voyager, STEREO, New Horizons, Perseverance, James Webb, and Psyche just to name a few. They are also gearing up to support Europa Clipper which is launching  in October to study Jupiter’s icy moon for the first time.
      In a historic first, all six radio frequency antennas at the Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex carried out a test to receive data from the agency’s Voyager 1 spacecraft at the same time on April 20, 2024. Credits: MDSCC/INTA, Francisco “Paco” Moreno Next, I toured the Leicester Space Park in the UK to discuss our ongoing collaborations with the University of Leicester and the United Kingdom Space Agency. In London, I presented at the Codex International Technology Leaders Network about our ongoing search for life in our solar system and beyond. I shared how our hunt for exoplanets and technosignurates are built upon the great legacy of telescopes like Keppler, Chandra, and Hubble. These telescopes, and the incredibly powerful James Webb Space Telescope, are laying the groundwork for the eventual launch of the Habitable Worlds Observatory, the first space telescope that would be designed to find life as we know it outside our solar system, while exploring broader secrets of the universe. It was a unique opportunity also talk about the intersections between the search for life and our own work here at home to understand our changing climate and accessible science. I also got the chance to explore the British Interplanetary Society’s extensive collection of space artifacts before taking off for Greece.
      In Greece, I visited the sacred island of Delos – the birthplace of the mythical twin gods Apollo and Artemis – to participate in the Alpha Mission Delos Global Gathering. The mission of Alpha Mission Delos is to raise awareness around the climate crisis and calls to action people from all walks of life. What is incredibly special about Delos is that it is an open museum with history all around, and allowed us to see first-hand the effects climate change and rising sea levels have had on the ancient ruins that were once the cosmopolitan epicenter in the Mediterranean. I also witnessed archaeological sites that are now being re-buried so that they may be preserved for future generations to study. It reminded me of the need to preserve environments, here at home, but also as we go back to the Moon and on to Mars. The Artemis Accords, of which Greece is a signatory, will help us do just that.
      NASA’s Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Nicky Fox speaks at the World Human Forum on the island of Delos, Greece on May 15 2024. Credits: World Human Forum Throughout my days at the Gathering, we discussed the intersections between science, art, and the humanities. I shared how the Artemis program gives us the unique opportunity to understand that humanity will not succeed in addressing the challenges we are faced with today unless we combine the wisdom of the past with the knowledge and possibilities of today. With the Apollo program, we went to the Moon as a single nation, but with Artemis, we go together. To tackle challenges like Artemis and the impacts of a changing climate, we know how important it is to engage audiences and stakeholders that are not just scientists and engineers, and make them feel part of the mission. I noted the importance of inclusive teams and inclusive science. Science is for everyone, and the whole-of-self approach is valuable for putting a mission into space, and using the data here on Earth, to understand our home and solar system and our place in it. We all have a unique role to play in humanity’s exploration of the cosmos and beyond. It was a powerful reminder that science and space truly connect us all. 
      In France, it was a fitting to end my trip when I formally signed a new Memorandum of Understanding to expand NASA’s work on the ESA-led ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover mission launching in 2028. The Rosalind Franklin rover’s unique drilling capabilities and onboard samples laboratory have outstanding scientific value in humanity’s search for evidence of past life on Mars. NASA supports the Rosalind Franklin mission to continue the strong partnership between the United States and Europe to explore the unknown in our solar system and beyond.
      NASA’s Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Nicky Fox and ESA’s Director of Human and Robotic Exploration Daniel Neuenschwander sign an agreement on the Rosalind Franklin mission at ESA’s headquarters in Paris, France on May 16, 2024. Credits: ESA/Damien Dos Santos It was a whirlwind of a trip, but I learned so much about how we, together as countries, partners and friends, use the vantage point of space to achieve humanity’s journey in discovery about our home planet, our solar system neighborhood, and the unknown beyond to better understand our place in the cosmos from a scientific perspective. Together, let us remember to merge the experiences and talents from all walks of life and foster inclusion to conquer such an audacious goal.
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