Jump to content

California continues to burn


Recommended Posts

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Similar Topics

    • By NASA
      3 min read
      Preparations for Next Moonwalk Simulations Underway (and Underwater)
      NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument on June 19 recorded scorching roads and sidewalks across Phoenix where contact with skin could cause serious burns in minutes to seconds, as indicated in the legend above. NASA/JPL-Caltech Roads and sidewalks in some areas get so hot that skin contact could result in second-degree burns.
      Researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California have mapped scorching pavement in Phoenix where contact with skin — from a fall, for example — can cause serious burns. The image shows land surface temperatures across a grid of roads and adjacent sidewalks, revealing how urban spaces can turn hazardous during hot weather.
      Data for this visualization of the Phoenix area — the fifth most populous city in the United States — was collected at 1:02 p.m. local time on June 19, 2024, by a NASA instrument aboard the International Space Station. Called ECOSTRESS (short for the Ecosystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station), the instrument measures thermal infrared emissions from Earth’s surface.
      The Image shows how miles of asphalt and concrete surfaces (colored here in yellow, red, and purple, based on temperature) trap heat. The surfaces registered at least 120 degrees Fahrenheit (49 degrees Celsius) to the touch — hot enough to cause contact burns in minutes to seconds.
      The image also shows cooling effects of green spaces in communities like Encanto and Camelback East, in contrast to the hotter surface temperatures seen in Maryvale and Central City, where there are fewer parks and trees.
      “We create these maps to be intuitive to users and help make data more accessible to the public and citizens scientists,” said Glynn Hulley, a JPL climate researcher. “We see them as a vital tool for planning effective heat interventions, such as tree planting, that can cool down the hottest roads and sidewalks.”
      Homing in on Heat
      At the lower right of the image is Phoenix’s Sky Harbor International Airport, where ECOSTRESS recorded some of the hottest land surface temperatures within the city —around 140 F (60 C). The air temperature on June 19 at the airport reached 106 F (43 C).
      Air temperature, which is measured out of direct sunlight, can differ significantly from the temperature at the land surface. Streets are often the hottest surfaces of the built environment due to dark asphalt paving that absorbs more sunlight than lighter-colored surfaces; asphalt absorbs up to 95% of solar radiation. These types of surfaces can easily be 40 to 60 degrees F (22 to 33 degrees C) hotter than the air temperature on a very hot day.
      Launched to the International Space Station in 2018, ECOSTRESS has as its primary mission the identification of plants’ thresholds for water use and water stress, giving insight into their ability to adapt to a warming climate. But the instrument is also useful for documenting other heat-related phenomena, like patterns of heat absorption and retention.
      To produce the image of Phoenix, scientists used a machine learning algorithm that incorporates data from additional satellites: NASA/USGS Landsat and Sentinel-2. The combined measurements were used to “sharpen” the surface temperatures to a resolution of 100 feet (30 meters) by 100 feet (30 meters).
      More About the Mission
      JPL built and manages the ECOSTRESS mission for the Earth Science Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. ECOSTRESS is an Earth Venture Instrument mission; the program is managed by NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder program at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.
      More information about ECOSTRESS is available here: https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/.
      News Media Contacts
      Jane J. Lee / Andrew Wang
      Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
      818-354-0307 / 626-379-6874
      jane.j.lee@jpl.nasa.gov / andrew.wang@jpl.nasa.gov
      Written by Sally Younger
      2024-096
      Share
      Details
      Last Updated Jul 02, 2024 Related Terms
      Ecostress (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) Earth Science Extreme Weather Events Jet Propulsion Laboratory Weather and Atmospheric Dynamics Explore More
      5 min read NASA’s NEOWISE Infrared Heritage Will Live On
      Article 22 hours ago 2 min read NASA@ My Library and Partners Engage Millions in Eclipse Training and Preparation
      The Space Science Institute, with funding from the NASA Science Mission Directorate and Gordon and…
      Article 4 days ago 4 min read NASA Parachute Sensor Testing Could Make EPIC Mars Landings
      Article 5 days ago Keep Exploring Discover Related Topics
      Missions
      Humans in Space
      Climate Change
      Solar System
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      4 Min Read California Teams Win $1.5 Million in NASA’s Break the Ice Lunar Challenge
      By Savannah Bullard
      After two days of live competitions, two teams from southern California are heading home with a combined $1.5 million from NASA’s Break the Ice Lunar Challenge. 
      The husband-and-wife duo of Terra Engineering, Valerie and Todd Mendenhall, receive the $1 million prize Wednesday, June 12, for winning the final phase of NASA’s Break the Ice Lunar Challenge at Alabama A&M’s Agribition Center in Huntsville, Alabama. With the Terra Engineering team at the awards ceremony are from left Daniel K. Wims, Alabama A&M University president; Joseph Pelfrey, NASA Marshall Space Flight center director; NASA’s Break the Ice Challenge Manager Naveen Vetcha; and Majed El-Dweik, Alabama A&M University’s vice president of research & economic development. NASA/Jonathan Deal Since 2020, competitors from around the world have competed in this challenge with the common goal of inventing robots that can excavate and transport the icy regolith on the Moon. The lunar South Pole is the targeted landing site for crewed Artemis missions, so utilizing all resources in that area, including the ice within the dusty regolith inside the permanently shadowed regions, is vital for the success of a sustained human lunar presence.
      On Earth, the mission architectures developed in this challenge aim to help guide machine design and operation concepts for future mining and excavation operations and equipment for decades.
      “Break the Ice represents a significant milestone in our journey toward sustainable lunar exploration and a future human presence on the Moon,” said Joseph Pelfrey, Center Director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. “This competition has pushed the boundaries of what is possible by challenging the brightest minds to devise groundbreaking solutions for excavating lunar ice, a crucial resource for future missions. Together, we are forging a future where humanity ventures further into the cosmos than ever before.”
      The final round of the Break the Ice competition featured six finalist teams who succeeded in an earlier phase of the challenge. The competition took place at the Alabama A&M Agribition Center in Huntsville, Alabama, on June 11 and 12, where each team put their diverse solutions to the test in a series of trials, using terrestrial resources like gravity-offloading cranes, concrete slabs, and a rocky track with tricky obstacles to mimic the environment on the Moon.
      Thehusband-and-wife duo of Terra Engineering took home the top prize for their “Irresistible Object” rover. Team lead Todd Mendenhall competed in NASA’s 2007 Regolith Excavation Challenge, facilitated through NASA’s Centennial Challenges, which led him and Valerie Mendenhall to continue the pursuit of solutions for autonomous lunar excavation.
      Starpath Robotics earned the second place prize for its four-wheeled rover that can mine, collect, and haul material during the final phase of NASA’s Break the Ice Lunar Challenge at Alabama A&M’s Agribition Center in Huntsville, Alabama. From left are Matt Kruszynski, Saurav Shroff, Matt Khudari, Alan Hsu, David Aden, Mihir Gondhalekarl, Joshua Huang and Aakash Ramachandran.NASA/Jonathan Deal A small space hardware business, Starpath Robotics, earned the second-place prize for its four-wheeled rover that can mine, collect, and haul material. The team, led by Saurav Shroff and lead engineer Mihir Gondhalekar, developed a robotic mining tool that features a drum barrel scraping mechanism for breaking into the tough lunar surface. This allows the robot to mine material quickly and robustly without sacrificing energy.
      “This challenge has been pivotal in advancing the technologies we need to achieve a sustained human presence on the Moon,” said Kim Krome, the Acting Program Manager for NASA’s Centennial Challenges. “Terra Engineering’s rover, especially, bridged several of the technology gaps that we identified – for instance, being robust and resilient enough to traverse rocky landscapes and survive the harsh conditions of the lunar South Pole.”
      Beyond the $1.5 million in prize funds, three teams will be given the chance to use Marshall Space Flight Center’s thermal vacuum (TVAC) chambers to continue testing and developing their robots. These chambers use thermal vacuum technologies to create a simulated lunar environment, allowing scientists and researchers to build, test, and approve hardware for flight-ready use.
      The following teams performed exceptionally well in the excavation portion of the final competition, earning these invitations to the TVAC facilities:
      Terra Engineering (Gardena, California) Starpath Robotics (Hawthorne, California) Michigan Technological University – Planetary Surface Technology Development Lab (Houghton, Michigan) “We’re looking forward to hosting three of our finalists at our thermal vacuum chamber, where they will get full access to continue testing and developing their technologies in our state-of-the-art facilities,” said Break the Ice Challenge Manager Naveen Vetcha, who supports NASA’s Centennial Challenges through Jacobs Space Exploration Group. “Hopefully, these tests will allow the teams to take their solutions to the next level and open the door for opportunities for years to come.”
      NASA’s Break the Ice Lunar Challenge is a NASA Centennial Challenge led by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center, with support from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in  Florida. Centennial Challenges are part of the Prizes, Challenges, and Crowdsourcing program under NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate. Ensemble Consultancy supports challenge competitors. Alabama A&M University, in coordination with NASA, supports the final competitions and winner event for the challenge.
      For more information on Break the Ice, visit:
      nasa.gov/breaktheice
      Jonathan Deal
      Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. 
      256.544.0034  
      jonathan.e.deal@nasa.gov 
      Share
      Details
      Last Updated Jun 13, 2024 LocationMarshall Space Flight Center Related Terms
      General Centennial Challenges Centennial Challenges News Marshall Space Flight Center Prizes, Challenges, and Crowdsourcing Program Explore More
      4 min read Six Finalists Named in NASA’s $3.5 Million Break the Ice Challenge
      Article 6 months ago 4 min read NASA Awards $500,000 in Break the Ice Lunar Challenge
      Article 3 years ago 3 min read Break the Ice Lunar Challenge Phase 2
      Article 2 years ago Keep Exploring Discover More Topics From NASA
      Missions
      Humans in Space
      Climate Change
      Solar System
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      2 min read
      Preparations for Next Moonwalk Simulations Underway (and Underwater)
      Brad Flick, center director at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, talks to students from California State University, Northridge, California. As part of the university’s Autonomy Research Center for science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship, arts, humanities, and mathematics, the students displayed posters and answered questions about their technologies May 23 at the Air Force Test Pilot School auditorium on Edwards Air Force Base, California.NASA/Steve Freeman Students from a minority-serving university in California are helping solve challenges of autonomous systems for future drone operations on Earth and other planets. These students are making the most of opportunities with NASA, the U.S. Department of Defense, and industry, focusing on autopilot development and advanced systems that adapt and evolve.
      Students from California State University, Northridge, who are part of the university’s Autonomy Research Center, displayed and discussed their research with posters highlighting the technology they developed at a recent event at Edwards Air Force Base in Edwards, California. A Mars science helicopter, mini rovers for science exploration, and 3D printed sulfur concrete for Mars habitats are some of their projects, and they answered questions from experts in the field on May 23 at the Air Force Test Pilot School auditorium.
      Two men from NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, ask Jared Carrillo, a student from the California State University, Northridge, Autonomy Research Center for science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship, arts, humanities, and mathematics, about his work on the Mars Science Helicopter. Students displayed posters and answered questions about their technologies May 23 at the Air Force Test Pilot School auditorium on Edwards Air Force Base, California.NASA/Steve Freeman “The goal is to help minority-serving institutions develop relationships with NASA,” said Bruce Cogan, a NASA Armstrong Small Business Innovation Research program liaison for the agency’s Aeronautics Research and Mission Directorate. “We want students to make connections and learn how to use NASA processes to submit research proposals. Students could also supplement work in autonomy that NASA wants to pursue.”
      Representatives from NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California, attended the event, looking for potential collaborations with students where NASA Armstrong would provide the funding through sources such as the NASA Armstrong Center Innovation Fund and NASA’s Convergent Aeronautics Solutions project to advance technology.
      Six students from the California State University, Northridge, Autonomy Research Center for science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship, arts, humanities, and mathematics spoke about their Trust in Autonomy technology. The students from left are Aniket Christi, Julia Spencer, Dana Bellinger, Zulma Lopez Rodriguez, front, Jordan Jannone, and Samuel Mercado. The group answered questions about their technology May 23 at the Air Force Test Pilot School auditorium on Edwards Air Force Base, California.NASA/Steve Freeman Use of uncrewed systems will require development of advanced controllers, and ideas like trust in autonomy, or how people can trust what the computers are doing, and human-machine teaming on Mars and Europa missions are examples of potential partnerships, Cogan said.
      Brad Flick, NASA Armstrong center director, and Tim Cacanindin, U.S. Air Force Global Power Bombers Combined Test Force deputy director, spoke at the event. Following the event, more than 50 students and faculty toured NASA Armstrong facilities.
      NASA’s Minority University Research and Education Project Institutional Research Opportunity funds a multi-year grant for the Autonomy Research Center. NASA Armstrong, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, co-sponsored the NASA grant.
      Nhut Ho, director of the NASA-sponsored Autonomy Research Center for science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship, arts, humanities, and mathematics at California State University, Northridge, left, spoke to Brad Flick, center director at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. The men were attending a student poster event, where students showcased their technologies and answered questions May 23 at the Air Force Test Pilot School auditorium on Edwards Air Force Base, California.NASA/Steve Freeman Share
      Details
      Last Updated Jun 10, 2024 EditorDede DiniusContactJay Levinejay.levine-1@nasa.govLocationArmstrong Flight Research Center Related Terms
      Armstrong Flight Research Center General Jet Propulsion Laboratory MUREP STEM Engagement at NASA Explore More
      4 min read NASA Ames Hosts National Wildfire Coordinating Group
      Article 12 hours ago 5 min read Ed Stone, Former Director of JPL, Voyager Project Scientist, Dies
      Article 17 hours ago 2 min read NASA Glenn’s Yvette Harris Inducted into MBA Hall of Fame 
      Article 18 hours ago Keep Exploring Discover More Topics From NASA
      Armstrong Flight Research Center
      Armstrong Technologies
      Space Technology Mission Directorate
      Learning Resources
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      5 Min Read Antarctic Sea Ice Near Historic Lows; Arctic Ice Continues Decline
      On Feb. 20, 2024, Antarctic sea ice officially reached its minimum extent for the year. This cycle of growth and melting occurs every year, with the ice reaching its smallest size during the Southern Hemisphere's summer. Credits: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio/Trent L. Schindler Sea ice at both the top and bottom of the planet continued its decline in 2024. In the waters around Antarctica, ice coverage shrank to near-historic lows for the third year in a row. The recurring loss hints at a long-term shift in conditions in the Southern Ocean, likely resulting from global climate change, according to scientists at NASA and the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Meanwhile, the 46-year trend of shrinking and thinning ice in the Arctic Ocean shows no sign of reversing.
      “Sea ice acts like a buffer between the ocean and the atmosphere,” said ice scientist Linette Boisvert of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Sea ice prevents much of the exchange of heat and moisture from the relatively warm ocean to the atmosphere above it.”
      Less ice coverage allows the ocean to warm the atmosphere over the poles, leading to more ice melting in a vicious cycle of rising temperatures.
      Historically, the area of sea ice surrounding the Antarctic continent has fluctuated dramatically from year to year while averages over decades have been relatively stable. In recent years, though, sea ice cover around Antarctica has plummeted.
      On Feb. 20, 2024, Antarctic sea ice officially reached its minimum extent for the year. This cycle of growth and melting occurs every year, with the ice reaching its smallest size during the Southern Hemisphere’s summer. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, this marks the second-lowest sea ice extent recorded by satellites, reflecting a trend of declining coverage over time.
      Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio
      Download this video in HD formats from https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/14538.
      “In 2016, we saw what some people are calling a regime shift,” said sea ice scientist Walt Meier of the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder. “The Antarctic sea ice coverage dropped and has largely remained lower than normal. Over the past seven years, we’ve had three record lows.”
      This year, Antarctic sea ice reached its lowest annual extent on Feb. 20 with a total of 768,000 square miles (1.99 million square kilometers). That’s 30% below the 1981 to 2010 end-of-summer average. The difference in ice cover spans an area about the size of Texas. Sea ice extent is defined as the total area of the ocean in which the ice cover fraction is at least 15%.
      This year’s minimum is tied with February 2022 for the second lowest ice coverage around the Antarctic and close to the 2023 all-time low of 691,000 square miles (1.79 million square kilometers). With the latest ice retreat, this year marks the lowest three-year average for ice coverage observed around the Antarctic continent across more than four decades.
      The changes were observed in data collected with microwave sensors aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite, jointly operated by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with satellites in the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.
      NASA’s Earth Observatory: Antarctic Sea Ice at Near-Historic Lows Meanwhile, at the other end of the planet, the maximum winter ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean is consistent with an ongoing 46-year decline. Satellite images reveal that the total area of the Arctic Ocean covered in sea ice reached 6 million square miles (15.65 million square kilometers) on March 14. That’s 247,000 square miles (640,000 square kilometers) less ice than the average between 1981 and 2010. Overall, the maximum winter ice coverage in the Arctic has shrunk by an area equivalent to the size of Alaska since 1979.
      This year’s Arctic ice maximum is the 14th lowest on record. Complex weather patterns make it difficult to predict what will happen in any given year.
      The Arctic Ocean sea ice reached its annual maximum on March 14, continuing the long-term decline in ice at the poles.Chart by Lauren Dauphin/NASA Earth Observatory, using data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Shrinking ice makes Earth more susceptible to solar heating. “The sea ice and the snow on top of it are very reflective,” Boisvert said. “In the summer, if we have more sea ice, it reflects the Sun’s radiation and helps keep the planet cooler.”
      On the other hand, the exposed ocean is darker and readily absorbs solar radiation, capturing and retaining that energy and ultimately contributing to warming in the planet’s oceans and atmosphere. 
      Sea ice around the poles is more susceptible to the weather than it was a dozen years ago. Ice thickness measurements collected with laser altimeters aboard NASA’s ICESat-2 satellite show that less ice has managed to stick around through the warmer months. This means new ice must form from scratch each year, rather than building on old ice to make thicker layers. Thinner ice, in turn, is more prone to melting than multi-year accumulations.
      “The thought is that in a couple of decades, we’re going to have these essentially ice-free summers,” Boisvert said, with ice coverage reduced below 400,000 square miles (1 million square kilometers) and most of the Arctic Ocean exposed to the Sun’s warming glare.
      It’s too soon to know whether recent sea ice lows at the South Pole point to a long-term change rather than a statistical fluctuation, but Meier believes long term declines are inevitable.
      “It’s only a matter of time,” he said. “After six, seven, eight years, it’s starting to look like maybe it’s happening. It’s just a question of whether there’s enough data to say for sure.”
      Reference: NSIDC Sea Ice Index Daily and Monthly Image Viewer By James Riordon
      NASA’s Earth Science News Team

      Media contact: Elizabeth Vlock
      NASA Headquarters
      Share
      Details
      Last Updated Mar 25, 2024 EditorGoddard Digital TeamLocationGoddard Space Flight Center Related Terms
      Earth Climate Change Goddard Space Flight Center Ice & Glaciers Sea Ice Explore More
      5 min read Arctic Sea Ice 6th Lowest on Record; Antarctic Sees Record Low Growth
      Arctic sea ice likely reached its annual minimum extent on September 19, 2023, making it…
      Article 6 months ago 3 min read NASA Finds 2022 Arctic Winter Sea Ice 10th-Lowest on Record
      Article 2 years ago 5 min read Meet NASA’s Twin Spacecraft Headed to the Ends of the Earth
      Article 1 month ago View the full article
    • By NASA
      Full-duration RS-25 Engine Hot FireNASA/Danny Nowlin Full-duration RS-25 Engine Hot FireNASA/Danny Nowlin Full-duration RS-25 Engine Hot FireNASA/Danny Nowlin Full-duration RS-25 Engine Hot FireNASA/Danny Nowlin NASA conducted a full-duration RS-25 engine hot fire March 6, continuing a final round of certification testing for production of new engines to help power the SLS (Space Launch System) rocket on future Artemis missions to the Moon and beyond. The full-duration test on the Fred Haise Test Stand at NASA’s Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, marked the ninth in a scheduled 12-test series. Engineers are collecting test data to certify an updated engine production process, using innovative manufacturing techniques, for lead engines contractor Aerojet Rocketdyne, an L3Harris Technologies company. During the March 6 test, Operators fired the certification engine for 10 minutes (600 seconds), longer than the amount of time needed to help launch the SLS rocket and send astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft into orbit. The test team also fired the engine at power levels between 80% and 113% to test performance in multiple scenarios. Four RS-25 engines, along with a pair of solid rocket boosters, launch NASA’s powerful SLS rocket, producing more than 8.8 million pounds of thrust at liftoff for Artemis missions. Through Artemis, NASA will establish the foundation for long-term scientific exploration at the Moon, land the first woman, first person of color, and first international partner astronaut on the lunar surface, and prepare for human expeditions to Mars for the benefit of all. RS-25 tests at NASA Stennis are conducted by a diverse team of operators from NASA, Aerojet Rocketdyne, and Syncom Space Services, prime contractor for site facilities and operations.
      View the full article
  • Check out these Videos

×
×
  • Create New...