Jump to content

Space shuttle use policy 51 U.S.C. Sec. 70102


Recommended Posts

  • Publishers

Sec. 70102. Space shuttle use policy

(a) Use Policy.–

(1) In general.–

(A) Policy.–It shall be the policy of the United States to use the space shuttle–

(i) for purposes that require a human presence;
(ii) for purposes that require the unique capabilities of the space shuttle; or
(iii) when other compelling circumstances exist.

(B) Definition of compelling circumstances.–In this paragraph, the term “compelling circumstances” includes, but is not limited to, occasions when the Administrator determines, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State, that important national security or foreign policy interests would be served by a shuttle launch.

(2) Using available cargo space for secondary payloads.–The policy stated in paragraph (1) shall not preclude the use of available cargo space, on a space shuttle mission otherwise consistent with the policy described in paragraph (1), for the purpose of carrying secondary payloads (as defined by the Administrator) that do not require a human presence if such payloads are consistent with the requirements of research, development, demonstration, scientific, commercial, and educational programs authorized by the Administrator.

(b) Annual Report.–At least annually, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report certifying that the payloads scheduled to be launched on the space shuttle for the next 4 years are consistent with the policy set forth in subsection (a)(1). For each payload scheduled to be launched from the space shuttle that does not require a human presence, the Administrator shall, in the certified report to Congress, state the specific circumstances that justified the use of the space shuttle. If, during the period between scheduled reports to Congress, any additions are made to the list of certified payloads intended to be launched from the shuttle, the Administrator shall inform Congress of the additions and the reasons therefor within 45 days of the change.

(c) Administration Payloads.–The report described in subsection (b) shall also include those Administration payloads designed solely to fly on the space shuttle which have begun the phase C/D of its development cycle.


(Pub. L. 111-314, Subtitle VII, Chapter 701, Sec. 70102, Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3427)

View the full article

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Similar Topics

    • By European Space Agency
      Video: 00:03:08 Henk Hoekstra, professor of observational cosmology at Leiden University, the Netherlands, shares his professional trajectory linked to weak gravitational lensing, a technique used by ESA’s Euclid mission.
      Henk explains how Euclid will reveal the dark side of the Universe. He uses enlightening examples involving a swimming pool and other terrestrial objects. Listen to Henk Hoekstra to understand how Euclid can make the invisible visible.
      Space Team Europe is an ESA space community engagement initiative to gather European space actors under the same umbrella sharing values of leadership, autonomy, and responsibility.
      View the full article
    • By European Space Agency
      ESA’s first human spaceflight mission lifted off 40 years ago today. Accompanied by the first ESA astronaut, Ulf Merbold, the Spacelab module took flight inside the Space Shuttle’s cargo bay, turning NASA’s ‘space truck’ into a mini-space station for scientific research. Europe continues to be highly active in the crewed module business to this day.
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      Record-breaking NASA astronaut Frank Rubio provides the first Spanish-language video tour of humanity’s home in space – the International Space Station.
      Rubio welcomes the public aboard the microgravity science laboratory in a behind-the-scenes look at living and working in space recorded during his 371-day mission aboard the space station, the longest single spaceflight in history by an American.
      The station tour is available to watch on the agency’s NASA+ streaming platform, NASA app, NASA Television, YouTube, and the agency’s website.
      Continuously inhabited for more than 23 years, the space station is a scientific platform where crew members conduct experiments across multiple disciplines of research, including Earth and space science, biology, human physiology, physical sciences, and technology demonstrations that could not be performed on Earth.
      The crew living aboard the station are the hands of thousands of researchers on the ground conducting more than 3,300 experiments in microgravity. During his record-breaking mission, Rubio spent many hours contributing to scientific activities aboard the orbiting laboratory, conducting everything from human health studies to plant research.
      Rubio returned to Earth in September, having completed approximately 5,936 orbits of the Earth and a journey of more than 157 million miles during his first spaceflight, roughly the equivalent of 328 trips to the Moon and back.
      Get the latest NASA space station news, images and features on Instagram, Facebook, and X.
      Keep up with the International Space Station, its research, and crew at:
      María José Viñas
      Headquarters, Washington
      Chelsey Ballarte
      Johnson Space Center, Houston
      View the full article
    • By European Space Agency
      Video: 00:07:54 Focus on Euclid with Jean-Charles Cuillandre: “What we see in the first Euclid images is a promise of what will come in the future.”
      Jean-Charles Cuillandre, astronomer at CEA Paris-Saclay, explains that he was “blown away” when he saw the first full-colour images captured by ESA’s recently launched Euclid space telescope. 
      Being a specialist of wide-field imaging, Jean-Charles was not only involved in the programme committee that selected the celestial targets for the ESA Euclid’s ‘Early Release Observations’, but he was also in charge of processing the data both for their scientific and their outreach value.
      Jean-Charles expected the resulting images to look extremely crispy since they are taken by instruments outside of the Earth’s disturbing atmosphere, but even he was not prepared for the astonishing results. The combination of the field-of-view (the area of sky covered with a single shot of the telescope), and the resolution (the number of pixels in the instruments) are unique for Euclid.
      The first five released images therefore show the scientific potential of the Euclid space mission. The Euclid Consortium is responsible to fulfill this promise. More than 2000 scientists from 300 institutes in 13 European countries, the US, Canada and Japan, will try to decipher the dark Universe through the analysis of Euclid’s scientific data.
      In this interview, Jean-Charles Cuillandre shares with us his view of Euclid and the elusive dark matter and dark energy. He specifically describes the apparent astronomical objects and reveals the hidden information behind their beautiful appearance.
      Be ready to be “blown away”.
      Space Team Europe is an ESA space community engagement initiative to gather European space actors under the same umbrella sharing values of leadership, autonomy, and responsibility.
      ©ESA - European Space Agency
      Euclid images
      ©ESA/Euclid/Euclid Consortium/NASA, image processing by J.-C. Cuillandre (CEA Paris-Saclay), G. Anselmi, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
      View the full article
    • By NASA
      The Thanksgiving holiday typically brings families and friends together in a celebration of common gratitude for all the good things that have happened during the previous year. People celebrate the holiday in various ways, with parades, football marathons, and attending religious services, but food remains the over-arching theme. For astronauts embarked on long-duration space missions, separation from family and friends is inevitable and they rely on fellow crew members to share in the tradition and enjoy the culinary traditions as much as possible. In this most unusual of years when the pandemic may alter typical Thanksgiving gatherings, it seems appropriate to review how astronauts over the years have celebrated the holiday during their time in space. Enjoy the stories and photographs from orbital Thanksgiving celebrations over the years.

      Thanksgiving 1973. Left: Skylab 4 astronauts Gerald P. Carr, Edward G. Gibson, and William R. Pogue, the first crew to celebrate Thanksgiving in space. Right: Gibson, left, Pogue, and Carr demonstrate eating aboard Skylab.
      Skylab 4 astronauts Gerald P. Carr, Edward G. Gibson, and William R. Pogue were the first crew to celebrate Thanksgiving in space on Nov. 22, 1973. On that day, their seventh of an 84-day mission, Gibson and Pogue completed a 6-hour and 33-minute spacewalk, while Carr remained in the Multiple Docking Adaptor with no access to food. All three made up for missing lunch by consuming two meals at dinner time, although neither included special items for Thanksgiving.

      Thanksgiving 1985. Left: STS-61B payload specialists Charles D. Walker, left, and Rodolfo Neri Vela of Mexico enjoy the first Thanksgiving aboard a space shuttle in Atlantis’ middeck. Middle: The STS-61B crew enjoying their Thanksgiving dinner while floating in Atlantis’ middeck. Right: Mexican payload specialist Neri Vela, who introduced tortillas to space menus.
      Twelve years passed before the next orbital Thanksgiving celebration. On Nov. 28, 1985, the seven-member crew of STS-61B, NASA astronauts Brewster H. Shaw, Bryan D. O’Connor, Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. “Woody” Spring, and payload specialists Charles D. Walker from the United States and Rodolfo Neri Vela from Mexico, feasted on shrimp cocktail, irradiated turkey, and cranberry sauce aboard the space shuttle Atlantis. Neri Vela introduced tortillas to space menus, and they have remained favorites among astronauts ever since. Unlike regular bread, tortillas do not create crumbs, a potential hazard in weightlessness, and have multiple uses for any meal of the day. The crew of STS-33, NASA astronauts Frederick D. Gregory, John E. Blaha, Manley L. “Sonny” Carter, F. Story Musgrave, and Kathryn C. Thornton, celebrated Thanksgiving aboard space shuttle Discovery in 1989. Gregory and Musgrave celebrated their second Thanksgiving in space two years later, joined by fellow STS-44 NASA astronauts Terrence T. “Tom” Henricks, James S. Voss, Mario Runco, and Thomas J. Hennen aboard space shuttle Atlantis.

      Thanksgiving 1996. Left: STS-80 astronauts Tamara E. Jernigan, left, Kent V. Rominger, and Thomas D. Jones enjoy Thanksgiving dinner in Columbia’s middeck. Right: The STS-80 crew during aboard Columbia exchanging Thanksgiving greetings with John E. Blaha aboard the Mir space station.
      In 1996, Blaha celebrated his second Thanksgiving in space with Russian cosmonauts Valeri G. Korzun and Aleksandr Y. Kaleri aboard the space station Mir. Blaha watched the beautiful Earth through the Mir windows rather than his usual viewing fare of football. The STS-80 crew of NASA astronauts Kenneth D. Cockrell, Kent V. Rominger, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and Musgrave, now on his third turkey day holiday in orbit, celebrated Thanksgiving aboard space shuttle Columbia. Although the eight crew members were in different spacecraft in different orbits, they exchanged holiday greetings via space-to-space radio. This marked the largest number of people in space on Thanksgiving Day up to that time. One year later, NASA astronaut David A. Wolf celebrated Thanksgiving with his Russian crewmates Anatoli Y. Solovev, who translated the holiday into Russian as den blagodarenia, and Pavel V. Vinogradov aboard Mir. They enjoyed smoked turkey, freeze-dried mashed potatoes, peas, and milk. Also in orbit at the time was the crew of STS-87, NASA astronauts Kevin R. Kregel, Steven W. Lindsey, Kalpana Chawla, and Winston E. Scott, Takao Doi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Leonid K. Kadenyuk of Ukraine, aboard Columbia. The nine crew members aboard the two spacecraft broke the one-year-old record for the largest number of people in space at one time for Thanksgiving, also setting the record for the most nations represented, four.

      Thanksgiving 2001, Expedition 3 crewmembers enjoying Thanksgiving dinner aboard the space station. Left: NASA astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, left, and Vladimir N. Dezhurov of Roscosmos. Middle: Dezhurov, left, and Mikhail V. Tyurin of Roscosmos. Right: Tyurin, left, and Culbertson.
      The Expedition 1 crew of NASA astronaut William M. Shepherd, and Yuri P. Gidzenko and Sergei K. Krikalev of Roscosmos celebrated the first Thanksgiving aboard the International Space Station on Nov. 23, 2000, three weeks after their arrival aboard the facility. The crew took time out of their busy schedule to enjoy ham and smoked turkey and send words of thanks to people on the ground who provided excellent support to their flight. Crews have celebrated Thanksgiving in space every November since then. In 2001, Expedition 3 crew members NASA astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, and Vladimir N. Dezhurov and Mikhail V. Tyurin of Roscosmos enjoyed the first real Thanksgiving aboard the space station, complete with a cardboard turkey as decoration. The following year’s orbital Thanksgiving celebration included the largest number of people to that time, the combined 10 crewmembers of Expedition 5, STS-113, and Expedition 6.  After a busy day that included the first Thanksgiving Day spacewalk aboard the space station, the crews settled down to a dinner of smoked turkey, mashed potatoes, and green beans with mushrooms. Blueberry-cherry cobbler rounded out the meal.

      Thanksgiving 2008. Left: The Thanksgiving dinner reheating in space shuttle Endeavour’s food warmer. Right: The crews of Expedition 18 and STS-126 share a meal in the space shuttle middeck.
      Expedition 18 crew members NASA astronauts E. Michael Fincke and Gregory E. Chamitoff and Yuri V. Lonchakov representing Roscosmos, welcomed the STS-126 crew of NASA astronauts Christopher J. Ferguson, Eric A. Boe, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Donald R. Pettit, Stephen G. Bowen, R. Shane Kimbrough, and Sandra H. Magnus during Thanksgiving in 2008. They dined in the space shuttle Endeavour’s middeck on smoked turkey, candied yams, green beans and mushrooms, cornbread dressing and a cranapple dessert. 

      Thanksgiving 2009. Left: Crew members from Expedition 21 and STS-129 share an early Thanksgiving meal. Right: The Thanksgiving dinner for the Expedition 21 and STS-129 crews.
      The following year saw the largest and an internationally diverse group celebrating Thanksgiving in space. The six Expedition 21 crew members, NASA astronauts Jeffrey N. Williams and Nicole P. Stott, Roman Y. Romanenko and Maksim V. Suraev of Roscosmos, Frank L. DeWinne of the European Space Agency, and Robert B. Thirsk of the Canadian Space Agency hosted the six members of the STS-129 crew, NASA astronauts Charles O. Hobaugh, Barry E. Wilmore, Michael J. Foreman, Robert L. Satcher, Randolph J. Bresnik, and Leland D. Melvin. The twelve assembled crew members represented the United States, Russia, Belgium, and Canada. The celebration took place two days early, since the shuttle undocked from the space station on Thanksgiving Day.

      Thanksgiving 2010. Left: Expedition 25 commander and NASA astronaut Scott J. Kelly awaits his crewmates at the Thanksgiving dinner table. Right: The Expedition 25 crew of Oleg I. Skripochka of Roscosmos, left, Kelly, NASA astronaut Douglas H. Wheeler, Aleksandr Y. Kaleri and Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Shannon Walker sending Thanksgiving greetings to the ground before digging into their dinner.

      Thanksgiving 2013. Left: Expedition 38 NASA astronauts Michael S. Hopkins, left, and Richard A. Mastracchio showing off food items destined for the Thanksgiving Day dinner. Right: Close-up of the Thanksgiving dinner items, including turkey, ham, macaroni and cheese, green beans and mushrooms, and dressing.

      Thanksgiving 2014. Left: Eager for Thanksgiving, Expedition 42 commander and NASA astronaut Barry E. “Butch” Wilmore sets out his meal several days in advance. Right: Expedition 42 crew members Wilmore, left, Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency, Aleksandr M. Samokutyayev and Anton N. Shkaplerov of Roscosmos, NASA astronaut Terry W. Virts, and Elena O. Serova of Roscosmos enjoy the Thanksgiving Day dinner.

      Thanksgiving 2015. Left: Expedition 45 crew members Mikhail B. Korniyenko, left, Oleg D. Kononenko, and Sergei A. Volkov of Roscosmos, NASA astronaut Kjell N. Lindgren, Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and NASA astronaut Scott J. Kelly pose before the Thanksgiving dinner table. Right: Kelly, left, and Lindgren show off the Thanksgiving dinner items.

      Thanksgiving 2016. Left: Expedition 50 crew members Oleg V. Novitsky, left, Sergei N. Ryzhikov, and Andrei I. Borisenko of Roscosmos, Thomas G. Pesquet of the European Space Agency, and NASA astronauts R. Shane Kimbrough and Peggy A. Whitson pose before the Thanksgiving dinner table. Right: The Expedition 50 crew tucks into the feast.

      Thanksgiving 2017. Left: The Thanksgiving table is set. Middle: The Expedition 53 crew of Paolo A. Nespoli of the European Space Agency, left, NASA astronauts Joseph M. Acaba and Mark T. Vande Hei, Sergei N. Ryazansky and Aleksandr A. Misurkin of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Randolph J. Bresnik patiently awaits the start of the dinner. Right: The Expedition 53 crew digs in.

      Thanksgiving 2019. Left: The turkey is in the oven, or more precisely the smoked turkey packages are in the Galley Food Warmer. Right: Expedition 61 crew members NASA astronaut Christina H. Koch, left, Aleksandr A. Skvortsov of Roscosmos, NASA astronaut Jessica U. Meir, Oleg I. Skripochka of Roscosmos, NASA astronaut Andrew R. Morgan, and Luca S. Parmitano of the European Space Agency celebrate Thanksgiving aboard the space station.

      Thanksgiving 2020. Left: Expedition 64 NASA astronaut Kathleen H. “Kate” Rubins prepares the Thanksgiving dinner. Right: The Expedition 64 crew of NASA astronaut Michael S. Hopkins, Soichi Noguchi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sergei V. Kud-Sverchkov and Sergei N. Ryzhikov of Roscosmos, and NASA astronauts K. Meghan McArthur, Victor J. Glover, and Rubins enjoying the Thanksgiving meal including frozen treats for dessert.

      Thanksgiving 2021. Left: Thanksgiving dinner cooking in the “oven” aboard the space station. Right: Expedition 66 crew members NASA astronauts Raja J. Chari, left, Kayla S. Barron, Mark T. Vande Hei, Thomas H. Marshburn, Russian cosmonauts Anton N. Shkaplerov and Pyotr V. Dubrov (partially visible), and European Space Agency astronaut Matthias J. Maurer (taking the photo) enjoy the Thanksgiving feast.

      Thanksgiving 2022. Expedition 68 crew members NASA astronauts Nicole A. Mann, left, Josh A. Cassada, and Francisco “Frank” C. Rubio, and Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency send Thanksgiving Day greetings.

      Thanksgiving 2023. Expedition 70 crew members Andreas E. Mogensen, of the European Space Agency, front left, NASA astronauts Loral A. O’Hara and Jasmin Moghbeli, and Satoshi Furukawa of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency beam down their Thanksgiving message to everyone on the ground.
      We hope you enjoyed these stories, photographs, and videos from Thanksgivings celebrated in space. We would like to wish everyone here on the ground and the seven-member crew of Expedition 70 aboard the space station a very happy Thanksgiving!

      Last Updated Nov 22, 2023 Related Terms
      NASA History Explore More
      12 min read 55 Years Ago: Eight Months Before the Moon Landing
      Article 6 days ago 12 min read 50 Years Ago: Launch of Skylab 4, The Final Mission to Skylab
      Article 6 days ago 7 min read 65 Years Ago: NASA Formally Establishes The Space Task Group
      Article 2 weeks ago View the full article
  • Check out these Videos

  • Create New...